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A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Allergic (Leukocytoclastic) Vasculitis

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A systemic inflammatory process involving venules by deposits of fibrin within their wall in conjunction with neutrophils and nuclear “dust” of neutrophils in the dermis and, at times, the subcutaneous fat.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Bullous Pemphigoid and Herpes Gestationis

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An inflammatory disease of older people; signs include widespread erythematous macules and patches, urticarial papules and plaques, and vesicles and bullae, the blisters often arising on urticarial plaques.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Candidiasis

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An inflammatory disease caused by the yeast Candida albicans and manifested clinically as erythematous papules and pustules that may become confluent to form plaques in the case of the former and erosions in the case of the latter.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Cysts and Cystic Hamartomas

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Papules, nodules, and tumors that, on gross examination, are usually skin colored and, on histopathologic examination, consist of an epithelium-lined sac that contains fluid, cells, or both in the case of true cysts and of cysts that are associated with other epithelial elements of adnexa in the case of cystic hamartomas.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatofibroma

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An inflammatory process that develops secondary to trauma, usually in the form of a penetrating injury or rupture of a follicle, and that proceeds through stages of granulation tissue with numerous extravasated erythrocytes, granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

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A malignant nonepithelial neoplasm (a sarcoma) presumably of perineural fibrocytes that presents itself usually on the trunk, but sometimes elsewhere, such as the extremities, face, and scalp.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatomyositis

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An inflammatory disease of children and adults that tends to involve skin and skeletal muscle mostly, the findings in the skin being patches with the color of heliotrope, especially in the periocular region.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatophytosis

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An inflammatory process caused by superficial fungi, i.e., fungi situated superficially in the cornified layer and in other cornified structures, and expressed clinically as smooth-surfaced papules, scaly papules, scaly plaques, nodules, pustules, vesicles, and bullae.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Extramammary Paget’s Disease and Mammary Paget’s Disease

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Extramammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins within the epidermis and presents itself clinically as a patch or a subtle plaque that extends centrifugally for many years before becoming a readily discernible thick plaque, a finding that signifies involvement by the carcinoma of the dermis, too.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Hemangiomas, Vascular Malformations, and Ectasias

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An hemangioma is a benign neoplasm of blood vessels, a vascular malformation is an aberration in development of one or more major vascular structures, and an ectasia is a dilation of a preexisting end vessel.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Herpes Simplex, Zoster, and Varicella

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Conditions caused by infection with different strains of herpesvirus and typified when fully developed by tense vesicles, herpes simplex consisting of grouped vesicles on an erythematous base, zoster being made up of vesicles, sometimes hemorrhagic ones, that course along a dermatome of an adult usually, and varicella being characterized by widespread discrete vesicles in children as a rule.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Histiocytosis X

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A proliferation of abnormal Langerhans’ cells that may affect internal organs, e.g., the spleen, liver, and bone, sometimes with fatal outcome, as well as the skin, where lesions usually manifest themselves as purpuric papules or ulcers that may be localized (to the vulva, for example) or widespread.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Keratosis Pilaris/Lichen Spinulosus

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Keratotic spikes that emerge from dilated ostia of infundibula and are equidistant from one another.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Livedo Vasculitis and Livedo Reticularis

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A type of small-vessel vasculitis (venulitis) of the skin, occurring especially in the vicinity of the ankle, characterized at first by purpuric macules and patches that, in time, may become hemorrhagic blisters that ulcerate and heal with white, stellate scars (atrophie blanche).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lupus Erythematosus

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An inflammatory process that expresses itself in the skin in protean ways that are variations on a basic pathologic theme, and includes evanescent patches on the face (“butterfly blush”), scaly papules and plaques that resolve with atrophy and hyperpigmentation (classic discoid lupus erythematosus), arcuate, annular, and serpiginous lesions (subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), nonscaling plaques (tumid lupus erythematosus), subcutaneous nodules (lupus profundus), and blisters (bullous lupus erythematosus).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lymphomatoid Papulosis

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A distinctive type of CD 30 lymphoma characterized by the presence mostly of papules, some of them purpuric, that may ulcerate and heal with a scar, and by lesions that tend to come and go for years, eventually disappearing entirely or, on occasion, becoming nodular and even tumorous, which is an indication of likelihood of detectable lymphomatous involvement of some organs besides the skin.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Melanocytic Nevi and Melanotic Macules

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Hamartomas (“congenital” melanocytic nevi) and benign neoplasms (“acquired” melanocytic nevi) of various specific types, all of which are composed of abnormal melanocytes and manifested clinically as lesions of different colors, shapes, and sizes, among them, macules and patches, papules and plaques, and nodules and tumors.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Neurofibromatosis

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A constellation of lesions that represent disorders of melanocytes (e.g., axillary "freckles" and café au lait "spots") and of proliferations of Schwann cells (e.g., papules, nodules, and tumors of neurofibroma).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Palmar and Plantar Keratoderma

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A keratotic condition of the palms and soles, inherited usually, but sometimes acquired, in which involvement may be diffuse, circumscribed (including striate), or punctate.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Phototoxic Dermatitis

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An inflammatory process that represents the combined effects of a toxic substance applied topically or administered systemically in combination with the effects of ultraviolet light, the result being a caricature of sunburn.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Porokeratosis

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A constellation of conditions that assumes various forms clinically but whose most dependable denominator in common (the exception being the punctate manifestation) is a keratotic ring around a central zone of atrophy, e.g., in a congenital expression that takes the form of a plaque (Mibelli), in a congenital manifestation in which lesions are in linear array (segmental), in an acquired type induced by ultraviolet light (disseminated superficial actinic), and in an acquired form in which lesions are not in photodistribution (disseminated superficial).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy

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An inflammatory process in pregnant women near term that consists of urticarial papules and plaques, especially on the trunk and particularly in association with lesions of striae atrophicantes, the lesions disappearing shortly after parturition.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Scars, Keloids, and Anetodermas

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A type of fibrosing inflammation characterized clinically by lesions that at first are elevated and that do not extend beyond the exact site of injury and that in time tend to shrink, sometimes even becoming atrophic.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Anetoderma

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The end-stage of an inflammatory or neoplastic process in which there is loss of collagen and elastic tissue in the mid-reticular dermis with consequent formation of lesions that protrude in dome-like fashion above the skin surface and that can be herniated below the skin surface.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia

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An enlargement of normal pre-existing sebaceous lobules on the face, the forehead, cheeks, and nose in particular, that results in lesions seen clinically to consist of a rim of yellow papules around a central dell that represents a dilated ostium of a follicle.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Seborrheic Keratosis, Including Solar Lentigo

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A benign neoplasm of keratinocytes that consists of pigmented macules, papules, and plaques distributed on sun-exposed sites for a solar lentigo and the reticulated type of seborrheic keratosis, which represents a later stage of solar lentigo, and on the trunk mostly for other types of seborrheic keratosis unrelated to solar lentigo.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Stasis Changes and Venous Ulcers

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Alterations in the skin and subcutaneous fat, such as pigmentation and induration, secondary to the effects of long-term stasis, and ulcers that occur on the lower part of the legs as a consequence of the effects, combined, of incompetent valves of veins and thrombosis within veins situated deep.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Urticaria Pigmentosa

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A benign neoplastic process of mast cells.

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Overview

…mportant for patients with lower-extremity lesions. Ulceration and secondary infection are not infrequent, and they require aggressive therapy with antibiotics for infection or cellulitis and local dressings. Low-dose interferon alpha, 3 million unit…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis: Key Points

…exam and the symptom of pain, but biopsy of commonly performed to exclude cutaneous malignancies Treatment is aimed at protecting the area with local measures, with a number of topical, intralesional, and ultimately surgical treatment approaches avai…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Epidermolysis Bullosa: Overview

…y occur. Blister care: The normal skin forming the roof of the blister should be left on as long as possible; it is the optimal biologic dressing. If the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in the blister tends to increase its size, open the blister an…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Stings: Treatment

…gluconate 10% solution, 10 ml may benefit patients with severe toxic reactions. This should be given in a hospital setting. Infusions may need to be repeated at 1- to 4-hour intervals. Allergic reactions Local exaggerated reactions First-line therap…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Warts: Treatment

…sing, but fluid may be drained if painful or if palmar/plantar pressure extends the blister. The patient should be seen at 3- to 4-week intervals. Remove all dead tissue before retreating. Alternative steps Keratolytics are painless and effective. M…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis: Treatment

…Treatment First-line therapy: All patients should be counseled to protect the ear and avoid repeated external trauma. Initial therapy includes advising patients to avoid pressure to the area. Patients should use a soft pillow, including potentially a…

Histologic Diagnosis of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

Blister secondary to hypoxemia and local pressure

Blister secondary to hypoxemia and local pressure Presentation stereotypical Age and sex Any age and either sex Distribution of lesions Sites of pressure Configuration of lesions Linear often, especially over wings of scapulae Individual lesions Ery…

Histologic Diagnosis of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

Blister secondary to hypoxemia and local pressure

…larly children with a genetic proclivity for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, and allergic asthma. Intense pruritus induces patients to rub the skin intensely and to scratch furiously, the resultant factitious lesions being erythematous, often s…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Syphilis (Lues): Key Points

…n with HIV infection. In all cases of syphilis it is important to examine for and treat other STDs, and to trace and treat all contacts. Syphilis cases should be reported to the local health department. Infected individuals may resume sexual activity…

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