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A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Atypical Mycobacterial Infections

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Infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue by atypical mycobacteria, that is, mycobacteria other than those responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy, expressed clinically as keratotic and crusted papules, plaques, nodules, and tumors that may be punctuated by draining sinuses and by ulcers.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Basal-Cell Carcinoma

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A malignant neoplasm made up of abnormal germinative cells analogous to those that compose the folliculosebaceous-apocrine germ in an embryo and that usually manifests clinically as a papule or nodule which may become ulcerated.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Deep Fungal Infections

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Cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, usually nodules, that have become keratotic, crusted, and ulcerated as a consequence of infection by a variety of deep fungi, i.e., fungi situated in the dermis and subcutis, some of which may be disseminated to other organs.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

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An inflammatory process characterized by symmetrical distribution, especially on the skin of the scalp, overlying the scapulae and the sacrum, on the buttocks, and on the extensor surface of the extremities, of clusters of urticarial papules, papulovesicles, and vesicles that are so intensely pruritic that they soon are scratched away, leaving in the wake erosions, ulcers, hemorrhagic crusts, and eventually pigmented macules and scars.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Extramammary Paget’s Disease and Mammary Paget’s Disease

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Extramammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins within the epidermis and presents itself clinically as a patch or a subtle plaque that extends centrifugally for many years before becoming a readily discernible thick plaque, a finding that signifies involvement by the carcinoma of the dermis, too.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Mammary Paget’s

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Mammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins in mammary glands and extends along lactiferous ducts to the epidermis where it is seen clinically as a scaly, crusted, or eroded plaque on the nipple or areola of women mostly, and uncommonly of men.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Impetigo Contagiosa

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An infectious inflammatory process that consists of pustules that resolve with crusts in at least one locus and often several loci, usually on a face, and caused by streptococci or staphylococci.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Keratosis Pilaris/Lichen Spinulosus

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Keratotic spikes that emerge from dilated ostia of infundibula and are equidistant from one another.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Livedo Vasculitis and Livedo Reticularis

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A type of small-vessel vasculitis (venulitis) of the skin, occurring especially in the vicinity of the ankle, characterized at first by purpuric macules and patches that, in time, may become hemorrhagic blisters that ulcerate and heal with white, stellate scars (atrophie blanche).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Livedo Reticularis

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Bluish red net-like pattern of macules and patches, a consequence of dilated small end vessels of the superficial plexus.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Scars, Keloids, and Anetodermas

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A type of fibrosing inflammation characterized clinically by lesions that at first are elevated and that do not extend beyond the exact site of injury and that in time tend to shrink, sometimes even becoming atrophic.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases


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The end-stage of an inflammatory or neoplastic process in which there is loss of collagen and elastic tissue in the mid-reticular dermis with consequent formation of lesions that protrude in dome-like fashion above the skin surface and that can be herniated below the skin surface.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Seborrheic Keratosis, Including Solar Lentigo

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A benign neoplasm of keratinocytes that consists of pigmented macules, papules, and plaques distributed on sun-exposed sites for a solar lentigo and the reticulated type of seborrheic keratosis, which represents a later stage of solar lentigo, and on the trunk mostly for other types of seborrheic keratosis unrelated to solar lentigo.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Squamous-Cell Carcinoma

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A malignant neoplasm of keratinocytes that when present as a keratotic macule or papule on skin damaged badly by sunlight is referred to as solar keratosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Sweet’s Syndrome

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An inflammatory process expressed clinically by markedly edematous acuminate papules and edematous plaques situated mostly on the face, upper part of the trunk, and arms, especially the hands, and often accompanied by fever and leukocytosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases


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A benign neoplasm of apocrine ductal nature within the upper half of the dermis that manifests itself clinically as tiny, smooth, skin-colored, round or oblong papules that usually are situated in periorbital skin, but may be seen on other sites, such as the neck or genitalia, or even be widespread.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Tinea Versicolor

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An inflammatory disease caused by the fungus Malassezia furfur, the organisms of which proliferate in a slightly thickened stratum corneum.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Xanthomas, Including Xanthogranulomas

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Deposits of lipid in the skin and sometimes in subcutaneous tissues as a consequence often, but not always, of hyperlipidemia.

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Darier’s Disease: References

…rivastava G. (2005). Darier’s (Darier-White) disease/keratosis follicularis, IJD, 44:184-192. Savignac M, Edir A, Simon M, Hovnanian A. (2011). Darier disease: a disease model of impaired calcium homeostasis in the skin, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Superficial Fungal Infections: Therapy: Tinea unguium/onychomycosis

…before extending to the nail bed Tinea unguium, dermatophytic infection of the nails, can result in dystrophic or discolored (yellowing) nails, subungual hyperkeratosis, and friability. It is not necessary or appropriate to treat most cases of tinea…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Ichthyoses/Disorders of Cornification: Overview

…require the same topical approaches as milder forms. However, in addition, systemic retinoids may be indicated. Because the doses required for successful control of bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis), lamellar ichthyos…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Atopic Dermatitis: Initial Evaluation

…itis, also known as pityriasis alba. Fissuring is common in the retroauricular fold. Bacterial superinfection (seen as crusting) within fissures is a common complication. Keratosis pilaris or follicular hyperkeratosis in atopic dermatitis….

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: Overview

…1-1.5 mg/kg/day or acitretin 0.75 mg/kg/day may be considered in patients without contraindications (pregnancy, hyperlipidemia, advanced liver disease). Systemic retinoids will produce rapid, permanent clearing in about 50% of patients. A lesser per…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Keratosis Pilaris: Key Points

…s. Frictional folliculitis arising from areas of KP may result in increased erythema or pustules in the affected area. Long-term management to reduce hyperkeratosis is the mainstay of the therapeutic strategy and sometimes improves cosmetic appearanc…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Initial Evaluation

Initial Evaluation The presentation of allergic contact dermatitis may range from mild edema, erythema, or eczematous papules and plaques, to bright erythema with vesicles, bullae, and crusting; less e…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Hand Dermatitis: Treatment

…less dependent on steroids and, hence, less likely to relapse. In addition, tar minimizes the possible side effects from topical steroids. In patients with significant hyperkeratosis, topical lactic acid 5-12% or urea 10-40% preparations may be added…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: Key Points

Key Points OHL is caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and usually presents as corrugated white plaques of the lateral tongue. OHL is a clinical manifestation of immunosuppression and classically presents in the setting of HIV infecti…

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