Infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue by atypical mycobacteria, that is, mycobacteria other than those responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy, expressed clinically as keratotic and crusted papules, plaques, nodules, and tumors that may be punctuated by draining sinuses and by ulcers.
A malignant neoplasm made up of abnormal germinative cells analogous to those that compose the folliculosebaceous-apocrine germ in an embryo and that usually manifests clinically as a papule or nodule which may become ulcerated.
Cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, usually nodules, that have become keratotic, crusted, and ulcerated as a consequence of infection by a variety of deep fungi, i.e., fungi situated in the dermis and subcutis, some of which may be disseminated to other organs.
An inflammatory process characterized by symmetrical distribution, especially on the skin of the scalp, overlying the scapulae and the sacrum, on the buttocks, and on the extensor surface of the extremities, of clusters of urticarial papules, papulovesicles, and vesicles that are so intensely pruritic that they soon are scratched away, leaving in the wake erosions, ulcers, hemorrhagic crusts, and eventually pigmented macules and scars.
Extramammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins within the epidermis and presents itself clinically as a patch or a subtle plaque that extends centrifugally for many years before becoming a readily discernible thick plaque, a finding that signifies involvement by the carcinoma of the dermis, too.
Mammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins in mammary glands and extends along lactiferous ducts to the epidermis where it is seen clinically as a scaly, crusted, or eroded plaque on the nipple or areola of women mostly, and uncommonly of men.
Infundibulitis, usually a suppurative inflammatory process that involves infundibula, is either noninfectious, as in the case of pustules of acne vulgaris, or infectious, as in the case of pustules caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
An infectious inflammatory process that consists of pustules that resolve with crusts in at least one locus and often several loci, usually on a face, and caused by streptococci or staphylococci.
Keratotic spikes that emerge from dilated ostia of infundibula and are equidistant from one another.
A type of small-vessel vasculitis (venulitis) of the skin, occurring especially in the vicinity of the ankle, characterized at first by purpuric macules and patches that, in time, may become hemorrhagic blisters that ulcerate and heal with white, stellate scars (atrophie blanche).
Bluish red net-like pattern of macules and patches, a consequence of dilated small end vessels of the superficial plexus.
A type of fibrosing inflammation characterized clinically by lesions that at first are elevated and that do not extend beyond the exact site of injury and that in time tend to shrink, sometimes even becoming atrophic.
The end-stage of an inflammatory or neoplastic process in which there is loss of collagen and elastic tissue in the mid-reticular dermis with consequent formation of lesions that protrude in dome-like fashion above the skin surface and that can be herniated below the skin surface.
A benign neoplasm of keratinocytes that consists of pigmented macules, papules, and plaques distributed on sun-exposed sites for a solar lentigo and the reticulated type of seborrheic keratosis, which represents a later stage of solar lentigo, and on the trunk mostly for other types of seborrheic keratosis unrelated to solar lentigo.
A malignant neoplasm of keratinocytes that when present as a keratotic macule or papule on skin damaged badly by sunlight is referred to as solar keratosis.
An inflammatory process expressed clinically by markedly edematous acuminate papules and edematous plaques situated mostly on the face, upper part of the trunk, and arms, especially the hands, and often accompanied by fever and leukocytosis.
A benign neoplasm of apocrine ductal nature within the upper half of the dermis that manifests itself clinically as tiny, smooth, skin-colored, round or oblong papules that usually are situated in periorbital skin, but may be seen on other sites, such as the neck or genitalia, or even be widespread.
An inflammatory disease caused by the fungus Malassezia furfur, the organisms of which proliferate in a slightly thickened stratum corneum.
Deposits of lipid in the skin and sometimes in subcutaneous tissues as a consequence often, but not always, of hyperlipidemia.
…rivastava G. (2005). Darier’s (Darier-White) disease/keratosis follicularis, IJD, 44:184-192. Savignac M, Edir A, Simon M, Hovnanian A. (2011). Darier disease: a disease model of impaired calcium homeostasis in the skin, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta…
…before extending to the nail bed Tinea unguium, dermatophytic infection of the nails, can result in dystrophic or discolored (yellowing) nails, subungual hyperkeratosis, and friability. It is not necessary or appropriate to treat most cases of tinea…
…require the same topical approaches as milder forms. However, in addition, systemic retinoids may be indicated. Because the doses required for successful control of bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis), lamellar ichthyos…
…itis, also known as pityriasis alba. Fissuring is common in the retroauricular fold. Bacterial superinfection (seen as crusting) within fissures is a common complication. Keratosis pilaris or follicular hyperkeratosis in atopic dermatitis….
…1-1.5 mg/kg/day or acitretin 0.75 mg/kg/day may be considered in patients without contraindications (pregnancy, hyperlipidemia, advanced liver disease). Systemic retinoids will produce rapid, permanent clearing in about 50% of patients. A lesser per…
…s. Frictional folliculitis arising from areas of KP may result in increased erythema or pustules in the affected area. Long-term management to reduce hyperkeratosis is the mainstay of the therapeutic strategy and sometimes improves cosmetic appearanc…
Initial Evaluation The presentation of allergic contact dermatitis may range from mild edema, erythema, or eczematous papules and plaques, to bright erythema with vesicles, bullae, and crusting; less e…
…less dependent on steroids and, hence, less likely to relapse. In addition, tar minimizes the possible side effects from topical steroids. In patients with significant hyperkeratosis, topical lactic acid 5-12% or urea 10-40% preparations may be added…
…Tinea faciei Tinea pedis: Can range in morphologic appearance from dry minimal hyperkeratosis of the plantar surface of the foot, macerated hyperkeratotic plaques in the interdigital webspaces, to a bullous variant….
Key Points OHL is caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and usually presents as corrugated white plaques of the lateral tongue. OHL is a clinical manifestation of immunosuppression and classically presents in the setting of HIV infecti…