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Dermatopathology: Practical & Conceptual April - June 1995
Searching for Diogenes: Bulge-Activation Hypothesis Part II—The Bulge is Not a Bulge
Cosimo Misciali, MD
A. Bernard Ackerman, MD
1927 Felix Pinkus
1951 Hermann Pinkus
1958 Hermann Pinkus
1961 Sanderson & Thiede
1987 Headington & Astle
1990 Leshin & White
1990 Cotsarelis, Sun, Lavker
1991 Sun, Cotsarelis, Lavker
1991 Lavker, Cotsarelis, Wei, Sun
1991 Lane, Wilson, Hughes, Leigh
1992 Jaworsky, Kligman, Murphy
1993 Yang, Lavker, Sun
1993 Lavker, Miller, Wilson, Costarelis, Wei, Yang, Sun
1993 Kobayashi, Rochat, Barrandon
1994 Rochat, Kobayashi, Barrandon
Beiträge zur Histologie der Haare. Zeitschrift f Anatomic Entwick Bd II. Leipzig: von F.C.W. Vogel, 1877:375-410 (
Fig. 2 [Fig. 4] Anlage of a hair from the temporal scalp of a 18-cm-long human fetus. 1/150. b = the developing papilla; c. = anlage of the sebaceous gland; d = secondary anlage of a hair; e. = protuberance corresponding to the insertion of the m. arrector pili (Unna"s bulge); f. = m. arrector pili. (Reproduced with permission.)
"The bulge" plays no role in the follicular cycle, contrary to the opinion of Unna.
"The bulge" is simply the site for insertion of the muscle of hair erection, and it becomes protuberant as a consequence of the tug of a muscle upon it.
Schulin denies the hypothesis that "the bulge" is requisite for the follicular cycle.
Schulin did not realize that "the bulge" encircled a follicle; his drawings depict it as being unilateral. This misperception prompted his erroneous conclusion that "the bulge" came into being consequent to the pull of a muscle on the outer sheath.
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