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A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Acanthosis Nigricans

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Pigmented plaques formed by confluence of smooth-surfaced soft papules, some of which may become polypoid, traversed by accentuations of skin folds.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Acne Vulgaris

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A disease of infundibulosebaceous units, especially infundibula, that may manifest itself solely as noninflammatory lesions, i.e., comedones and intact cysts, or as inflammatory lesions, i.e., papules, nodules, and pustules.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory process induced by direct contact of the skin of a sensitized individual to an allergen.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Allergic (Leukocytoclastic) Vasculitis

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A systemic inflammatory process involving venules by deposits of fibrin within their wall in conjunction with neutrophils and nuclear “dust” of neutrophils in the dermis and, at times, the subcutaneous fat.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Alopecias

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Loss of hair attributable either to the effects of inflammatory cells on follicles or to physiological or mechanical factors in which inflammatory cells play no role.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Amyloidosis

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A condition in which deposits of a fibrillary protein (amyloid) appear in the skin as macules, papules, and nodules consequent to the effects of local factors, or as patches (which may be purpuric), plaques, nodules, and tumors as a result of a systemic disease like myeloma.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Scabies

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An inflammatory process caused by the acarus Sarcoptes scabiei and consisting of papules, papulovesicles, papulopustules, and vesicles, some arranged in linear or curvilinear tracks (burrows).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis

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A papule, sometimes eroded, ulcerated, crusted, or keratotic, on a helix or antehelix consequent to the effects of persistent trauma.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Atypical Mycobacterial Infections

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Infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue by atypical mycobacteria, that is, mycobacteria other than those responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy, expressed clinically as keratotic and crusted papules, plaques, nodules, and tumors that may be punctuated by draining sinuses and by ulcers.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Basal-Cell Carcinoma

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A malignant neoplasm made up of abnormal germinative cells analogous to those that compose the folliculosebaceous-apocrine germ in an embryo and that usually manifests clinically as a papule or nodule which may become ulcerated.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Borreliosis (Lyme Disease)

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An inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that manifests itself in the skin as erythematous lesions with figurate shapes, e.g., (round, ellipsoid, and arcuate) (erythema chronicum migrans), pseudolymphomatous nodules (lymphadenosis benigna cutis), and acral patches and plaques that in time become atrophic (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Bullous Pemphigoid and Herpes Gestationis

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An inflammatory disease of older people; signs include widespread erythematous macules and patches, urticarial papules and plaques, and vesicles and bullae, the blisters often arising on urticarial plaques.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Herpes Gestationis

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An inflammatory disease of the second and third trimesters of pregnancy characterized by widespread urticarial papules and plaques accompanied by vesicles and bullae.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Candidiasis

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An inflammatory disease caused by the yeast Candida albicans and manifested clinically as erythematous papules and pustules that may become confluent to form plaques in the case of the former and erosions in the case of the latter.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Cysts and Cystic Hamartomas

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Papules, nodules, and tumors that, on gross examination, are usually skin colored and, on histopathologic examination, consist of an epithelium-lined sac that contains fluid, cells, or both in the case of true cysts and of cysts that are associated with other epithelial elements of adnexa in the case of cystic hamartomas.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Darier’s Disease

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A genetically determined disorder in which numerous closely set keratotic papules are present on the skin, especially the trunk, in nail units, and on mucous membranes, particularly the palate, but also rarely in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Deep Fungal Infections

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Cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, usually nodules, that have become keratotic, crusted, and ulcerated as a consequence of infection by a variety of deep fungi, i.e., fungi situated in the dermis and subcutis, some of which may be disseminated to other organs.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

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An inflammatory process characterized by symmetrical distribution, especially on the skin of the scalp, overlying the scapulae and the sacrum, on the buttocks, and on the extensor surface of the extremities, of clusters of urticarial papules, papulovesicles, and vesicles that are so intensely pruritic that they soon are scratched away, leaving in the wake erosions, ulcers, hemorrhagic crusts, and eventually pigmented macules and scars.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatofibroma

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An inflammatory process that develops secondary to trauma, usually in the form of a penetrating injury or rupture of a follicle, and that proceeds through stages of granulation tissue with numerous extravasated erythrocytes, granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

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A malignant nonepithelial neoplasm (a sarcoma) presumably of perineural fibrocytes that presents itself usually on the trunk, but sometimes elsewhere, such as the extremities, face, and scalp.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatomyositis

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An inflammatory disease of children and adults that tends to involve skin and skeletal muscle mostly, the findings in the skin being patches with the color of heliotrope, especially in the periocular region.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dermatophytosis

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An inflammatory process caused by superficial fungi, i.e., fungi situated superficially in the cornified layer and in other cornified structures, and expressed clinically as smooth-surfaced papules, scaly papules, scaly plaques, nodules, pustules, vesicles, and bullae.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Drug Eruptions

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An inflammatory process that results from the effects of a drug administered systemically, e.g., by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or application rectally, and manifested usually by lesions distributed widely and symmetrically.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Fixed Drug Eruption

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Circular orange-red-blue macule(s) or patch(es) that often becomes a papule(s) or plaque(s) and vesiculates, healing with hyperpigmentation, and that occurs repeatedly at the very same cutaneous and/or mucous membrane site(s), especially the genitalia, perioral region, and hands, in response to systemic administration of a particular drug or chemical, chief among them barbiturates and sulfonamides.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Dyshidrotic Dermatitis

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A pruritic papular and vesicular inflammatory process of unknown cause that tends to affect the sides of fingers and toes, as well as palms and soles.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Epidermal Nevi

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Epidermal nevi are hamartomas in which the epidermis is abnormal, being hyperkeratotic, and in which lesions are aligned along Blaschko’s lines.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Epidermolysis Bullosa

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A constellation of unrelated blistering diseases, many of them determined genetically but some of them not, that involve skin and sometimes mucous membranes, the blisters often developing after trauma and sometimes resulting in scarring and deformity.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Erysipelas

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An inflammatory process caused by one of several bacteria, especially Streptococcus pyogenes, and manifested clinically as erythematous patches and erythematous edematous plaques with scalloped outlines upon which vesicles and bullae, some of them hemorrhagic, may develop.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

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An inflammatory disease characterized by lesions with arcuate, annular, and serpiginous outlines and by collarettes of scale on the inner margin of lesions that extend outward in centrifugal fashion, disappearing in months as a rule in the absence of treatment.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Erythema Multiforme

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An inflammatory process that tends to involve mucous membranes, as well as skin, and of the latter the acra especially.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Extramammary Paget’s Disease and Mammary Paget’s Disease

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Extramammary Paget’s disease is an apocrine carcinoma that begins within the epidermis and presents itself clinically as a patch or a subtle plaque that extends centrifugally for many years before becoming a readily discernible thick plaque, a finding that signifies involvement by the carcinoma of the dermis, too.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Factitious Dermatitis

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Dermatitis (and/or panniculitis) induced artificially and deliberately by a patient and characterized clinically by findings unlike those of any "authentic" disease, for example, by lesions that have sharply angulated margins, lesions that are artificially linear, and ulcers that have a punched-out appearance, all of these changes occurring on sites that are within easy reach of manipulating hands.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Fibromas

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Largely exophytic noninflammatory papules or nodules of various kinds made up mostly of collagen.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Grover’s Disease

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An inflammatory process characterized by a pruritic, papular, and, uncommonly, papulovesicular eruption of unknown cause affecting persons over 40 years of age (and usually over 60), often in photodistribution, but sometimes widespread.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Hailey-Hailey Disease

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A vesiculobullous disease in which blisters tend to be flaccid and localized to intertriginous regions, especially, the neck, axillary, inframammary, and inguinal ones.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Hemangiomas, Vascular Malformations, and Ectasias

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An hemangioma is a benign neoplasm of blood vessels, a vascular malformation is an aberration in development of one or more major vascular structures, and an ectasia is a dilation of a preexisting end vessel.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Herpes Simplex, Zoster, and Varicella

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Conditions caused by infection with different strains of herpesvirus and typified when fully developed by tense vesicles, herpes simplex consisting of grouped vesicles on an erythematous base, zoster being made up of vesicles, sometimes hemorrhagic ones, that course along a dermatome of an adult usually, and varicella being characterized by widespread discrete vesicles in children as a rule.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Histiocytosis X

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A proliferation of abnormal Langerhans’ cells that may affect internal organs, e.g., the spleen, liver, and bone, sometimes with fatal outcome, as well as the skin, where lesions usually manifest themselves as purpuric papules or ulcers that may be localized (to the vulva, for example) or widespread.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Ichthyoses

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Noninflammatory scaly disorders in which polygonal gray or brown scales tend to be elevated at their periphery, causing them to appear to be separated from contiguous scales, findings that are seen in three conditions, namely, ichthyosis vulgaris (and its look-alike, acquired ichthyosis), X-linked ichthyosis, and lamellar ichthyosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Impetigo Contagiosa

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An infectious inflammatory process that consists of pustules that resolve with crusts in at least one locus and often several loci, usually on a face, and caused by streptococci or staphylococci.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

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A systemic disease, which manifests itself in the skin first as violaceous macules and patches that tend to progress to papules and plaques, and sometimes to nodules and tumors, all of which represent hyperplasia of endothelial cells.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Keratosis Pilaris/Lichen Spinulosus

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Keratotic spikes that emerge from dilated ostia of infundibula and are equidistant from one another.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Leishmaniasis

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An inflammatory disease caused by a trypanosome and that may involve skin and mucous membranes, as well as internal organs.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lichen Nitidus

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A granulomatous inflammatory process characterized clinically by closely-set, tiny, hypopigmented papules that have a predilection for the trunk, dorsa of the hands and sides of the finger, and the penis of children and young adults especially.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lichen Planus

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An inflammatory process consisting usually of violaceous papules that have a polygonal outline and flat top, and that tends to favor flexural surfaces of skin and the buccal mucosa of the oral cavity.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lichen Striatus

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An inflammatory process that expresses itself as a cluster of closely-set smooth or scaly papules in linear array along the lines of Blaschko, and that usually resolves in months.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lipoma

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A benign neoplasm of adipocytes that forms in the subcutaneous fat (as well as in other organs sometimes) and manifests itself clinically as either an elevated tumor or a tumor that cannot be visualized clinically, but that can be palpated, the skin overlying it in both circumstances being normal.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Livedo Vasculitis and Livedo Reticularis

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A type of small-vessel vasculitis (venulitis) of the skin, occurring especially in the vicinity of the ankle, characterized at first by purpuric macules and patches that, in time, may become hemorrhagic blisters that ulcerate and heal with white, stellate scars (atrophie blanche).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Livedo Reticularis

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Bluish red net-like pattern of macules and patches, a consequence of dilated small end vessels of the superficial plexus.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Lymphomatoid Papulosis

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A distinctive type of CD 30 lymphoma characterized by the presence mostly of papules, some of them purpuric, that may ulcerate and heal with a scar, and by lesions that tend to come and go for years, eventually disappearing entirely or, on occasion, becoming nodular and even tumorous, which is an indication of likelihood of detectable lymphomatous involvement of some organs besides the skin.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Melanocytic Nevi and Melanotic Macules

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Hamartomas (“congenital” melanocytic nevi) and benign neoplasms (“acquired” melanocytic nevi) of various specific types, all of which are composed of abnormal melanocytes and manifested clinically as lesions of different colors, shapes, and sizes, among them, macules and patches, papules and plaques, and nodules and tumors.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Molluscum Contagiosum

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A hyperplasia of infundibular epithelium consequent to the effects of infection by a pox virus and manifesting itself clinically as one or more skin-colored, smooth-surfaced, dome-shaped papules, each with a central umbilication filled with horny material.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Mucha-Habermann Disease

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An inflammatory process in which lesions may erupt (pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta) and evolve rapidly from erythematous macules and papules to become purpuric papules, papulovesicles that may be hemorrhagic, ulcers, eschars, and, eventually, scars.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Mycosis Fungoides

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A systemic lymphoma of T-lymphocytes that manifests itself first in the skin as macules and then patches that often are scaly.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Necrobiosis Lipoidica

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A granulomatous inflammatory process characterized clinically by patches that become yellowish plaques and that in time resolve with atrophy and telangiectases.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Neurofibromatosis

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A constellation of lesions that represent disorders of melanocytes (e.g., axillary "freckles" and café au lait "spots") and of proliferations of Schwann cells (e.g., papules, nodules, and tumors of neurofibroma).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Nevus Sebaceus

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A hamartoma of epidermis, epithelial structures of adnexa, and presumably dermal elements, typified, when fully formed, by a papillated or verrucous yellowish plaque situated usually on the scalp.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Nodular Vasculitis

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An arteritis in the subcutaneous fat manifested clinically at first by one or more red nodules that, in time, become ulcerated and heal with scars, usually on the posterior aspect of the legs of short, thick-legged women.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Nummular Dermatitis

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An inflammatory process of unknown cause consisting of pruritic coin-shaped lesions of different sizes and made up of vesicles that soon are scratched away, leaving erosions, ulcerations, and crusts as residua.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pemphigus Foliaceus

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A blistering inflammatory disease in which acantholysis occurs in the upper part of the spinous zone or granular zone of the epidermis, the result of the process being flaccid blisters that give way to erosions and crusts accompanied by erythema.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pemphigus Vulgaris

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A blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes that presents itself in the skin first as flaccid bullae that soon become eroded, and in mucous membranes as erosions, hemorrhagic crusts, or both.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pernio

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An inflammatory process that involves the acra, in particular fingers and toes, and sometimes the thighs with bluish red papules and nodules, which invariably is induced by cold.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Persistent Pigmented Purpuric Dermatitis

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An inflammatory process, but not a vasculitis, that involves the legs especially with purpuric macules and subtle papules (Schamberg’s disease), lichenoid papules (lichenoid purpura of Gougerot-Blum), and scaly papules (eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis), all of which seem to be variants of the same basic pathologic process.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Phototoxic Dermatitis

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An inflammatory process that represents the combined effects of a toxic substance applied topically or administered systemically in combination with the effects of ultraviolet light, the result being a caricature of sunburn.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pityriasis Rosea

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An inflammatory process characterized by oval lesions marked at the periphery by collarettes of scale and distributed usually along lines of cleavage on the trunk especially, but in a general range from “the neck to the knees.”

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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An inflammatory process in which lesions present themselves clinically as red macules and subtle scaly papules.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Polymorphous Light Eruption

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An inflammatory process that appears on skin exposed to sunlight, especially the face, neck, sternal region, arms, and dorsa of hands, and consists mostly of edematous papules that may become confluent to form plaques, and at times, papulovesicles.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Porokeratosis

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A constellation of conditions that assumes various forms clinically but whose most dependable denominator in common (the exception being the punctate manifestation) is a keratotic ring around a central zone of atrophy, e.g., in a congenital expression that takes the form of a plaque (Mibelli), in a congenital manifestation in which lesions are in linear array (segmental), in an acquired type induced by ultraviolet light (disseminated superficial actinic), and in an acquired form in which lesions are not in photodistribution (disseminated superficial).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

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A disease manifested chiefly in the skin by vesicles and bullae that appear on sites of trauma, especially the face and dorsa of the hands, often in conjunction with macular hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis of a face and sclerodermoid changes on a chest.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy

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An inflammatory process in pregnant women near term that consists of urticarial papules and plaques, especially on the trunk and particularly in association with lesions of striae atrophicantes, the lesions disappearing shortly after parturition.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Psoriasis

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An inflammatory disease of genetic nature that begins with red macules that quickly become nonscaly papules that in turn become scaly papules and plaques.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Pyogenic Granuloma

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A red, often ulcerated, boggy papule that represents a hyperplasia of small cutaneous vessels which are “fed” by an arteriole in the subcutaneous fat, the lesion resulting consistently from external trauma, usually in the form of a puncture or a yank of a “hang nail.” In time, the proliferation of vessels ceases, there is progressive fibroplasia, and the then gray or white papule shrinks and eventually disappears.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Sarcoidosis

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An inflammatory (granulomatous) process that involves, among other organs, the lungs, lymph nodes, and skin, and the latter in the form usually of papules, sometimes in arcuate and annular configuration, especially on a face, but also on the extremities, and often in pre-existing scars.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Scars, Keloids, and Anetodermas

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A type of fibrosing inflammation characterized clinically by lesions that at first are elevated and that do not extend beyond the exact site of injury and that in time tend to shrink, sometimes even becoming atrophic.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Keloids

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A fibrosing inflammatory process characterized by papular, plaque-like, nodular, and tumorous lesions that extend well beyond the exact site of injury and that in time tend to shrink somewhat, but never greatly.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia

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An enlargement of normal pre-existing sebaceous lobules on the face, the forehead, cheeks, and nose in particular, that results in lesions seen clinically to consist of a rim of yellow papules around a central dell that represents a dilated ostium of a follicle.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Seborrheic Dermatitis

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An inflammatory process that consists of tiny papules covered by prominent scales and localized typically to the “seborrheic region,” namely, scalp, forehead, eyebrows, malar eminences, paranasal and nasolabial folds, and retroauricular zone, and sometimes the chest and axillary vault.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Seborrheic Keratosis, Including Solar Lentigo

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A benign neoplasm of keratinocytes that consists of pigmented macules, papules, and plaques distributed on sun-exposed sites for a solar lentigo and the reticulated type of seborrheic keratosis, which represents a later stage of solar lentigo, and on the trunk mostly for other types of seborrheic keratosis unrelated to solar lentigo.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Septic Vasculitis

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A small-vessel vasculitis characterized clinically by vesiculopustules on an erythematous base, purpuric macules and papules, and hemorrhagic bullae, and histopathologically by thrombi within venules, a consequence of sepsis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Squamous-Cell Carcinoma

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A malignant neoplasm of keratinocytes that when present as a keratotic macule or papule on skin damaged badly by sunlight is referred to as solar keratosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Stasis Changes and Venous Ulcers

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Alterations in the skin and subcutaneous fat, such as pigmentation and induration, secondary to the effects of long-term stasis, and ulcers that occur on the lower part of the legs as a consequence of the effects, combined, of incompetent valves of veins and thrombosis within veins situated deep.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Syphilis

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An inflammatory process, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, that tends to evolve through three stages, namely, primary (typified usually by a solitary chancre), secondary (characterized by widespread macules and papules on skin and mucous membranes in conjunction with signs and symptoms of systemic disease), and tertiary (manifested by gummas in the skin and destructive lesions also in the bones, eyes, brain, and elsewhere, resulting in debilitation and often death).

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Syringoma

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A benign neoplasm of apocrine ductal nature within the upper half of the dermis that manifests itself clinically as tiny, smooth, skin-colored, round or oblong papules that usually are situated in periorbital skin, but may be seen on other sites, such as the neck or genitalia, or even be widespread.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Tinea Versicolor

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An inflammatory disease caused by the fungus Malassezia furfur, the organisms of which proliferate in a slightly thickened stratum corneum.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Tuberculosis

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An inflammatory process caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Urticaria

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An inflammatory process that consists of transient, slightly erythematous, edematous papules and plaques characterized by a pseudopod-like border.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Urticaria Pigmentosa

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A benign neoplastic process of mast cells.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Viral Exanthems

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An inflammatory process manifested by a transient, usually widespread eruption, made up typically of macules and papules, and episodically of vesicles and pustules.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Vitiligo

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An inflammatory process that is idiopathic and results in depigmentation of the skin consequent to loss of melanocytes from the epidermis, and in whitening of hair that follows loss of melanocytes from the bulb of follicles.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Xanthomas, Including Xanthogranulomas

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Deposits of lipid in the skin and sometimes in subcutaneous tissues as a consequence often, but not always, of hyperlipidemia.

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Nevus Sebaceus

A hamartoma of epidermis, epithelial structures of adnexa, and presumably dermal elements, typified, when fully formed, by a papillated or verrucous yellowish plaque situated usually on the scalp. The condition may present itself as a solitary lesio…

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Melanocytic Nevi and Melanotic Macules

…neoplasms (“acquired” melanocytic nevi) of various specific types, all of which are composed of abnormal melanocytes and manifested clinically as lesions of different colors, shapes, and sizes, among them, macules and patches, papules and…

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Epidermal Nevi

Epidermal nevi are hamartomas in which the epidermis is abnormal, being hyperkeratotic, and in which lesions are aligned along Blaschko’s lines….

A Clinical Atlas of 101 Common Skin Diseases

Melanoma

…melanoma tends to be asymmetrical, poorly circumscribed with a scalloped, jagged, or notched border, and variegate, mostly shades of brown. A patch may become a plaque or upon it may develop a papule, nodule, or tumor. A papule may develop into a nod…

Therapeutic Strategies in Dermatology

Facial Melanosis, Melasma: Initial Evaluation

Initial Evaluation Clinical images show homogeneously hyperpigmented macules and geographic or irregular patches typically located on forehead, zygomatic cheeks, upper cutaneous lip, and nose. Central facial involvement is most common but mandibular…

Resolving Quandaries in Dermatology, Pathology & Dermatopathology

Malignant Spitz Nevus?

…ly high mitotic rate and mitosis deep within the lesion. There is more cellular pleomorphism, less maturation in depth and less cohesion of cells than in the usual Spitz nevus.” Weedon D, Strutton G. Skin Pathology. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill…

Differential Diagnosis in Dermatopathology

Dermatofibroma vs. Desmoplastic Spitz’s nevus

…melanoma tends to be asymmetrical, poorly circumscribed with a scalloped, jagged, or notched border, and variegate, mostly shades of brown. A patch may become a plaque or upon it may develop a papule, nodule, or tumor. A papule may develop into a nod…

Differential Diagnosis in Dermatopathology

Spitz’s nevus, compound type vs. Melanoma

…melanoma tends to be asymmetrical, poorly circumscribed with a scalloped, jagged, or notched border, and variegate, mostly shades of brown. A patch may become a plaque or upon it may develop a papule, nodule, or tumor. A papule may develop into a nod…

Resolving Quandaries in Dermatology, Pathology & Dermatopathology

Blue Nevus?

…n: Textbook of Dermatology. 5th ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1992:1538. “On the skin, three types of benign blue nevi are recognized: the common blue nevus, the cellular blue nevus, and the combined nevus. In additio…

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