Moulage: “Lupus erythematosus”

Beatrix Patzak, M.D.1

1Director of the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna, Austria

Citation: Patzak B. Moulage: “Lupus erythematosus”. Dermatol: Pract Concept 2011;1(1):1.

Copyright: ©2011 Patzak. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Corresponding Author: Beatrix Patzak, M.D., Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Uni Campus, Spitalgasse 2, A-1090, Vienna, Austria. Email:

“Lupus erythematosus”

The first description of lupus erythematosus was given by Pierre Louis Alphée Cazenave, who was a coworker of Laurent Théodore Biett, in 1851. He used the French term “lupus erythemateux.” In 1856 Ferdinand Hebra translated this work into German and coined the term lupus erythematosus, which is the Latin translation, and in 1863 Isidor Neumann propagated the Greek term “lupus erythematodes.” In 1869 Moritz Kaposi published a comprehensive description of the cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus. [1]

The Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum in Vienna houses 36 moulages with the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus, one of which is shown on the cover of the first issue of Dermatology: Practical and Conceptual (Figure 1). The oldest one dates back to 1894. Most moulages originate from patients of Moritz Kaposi and Gustav Riehl, who succeeded his teacher Kaposi as the professor of Dermatologie und Syphilis at the University of Vienna in 1902.

Figure 1. Moulage. “Lupus erythematosus”. Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum. Vienna, Austria, 1894.

Moulages are wax preparations (molds from real patients) made for teaching purposes. All moulages at the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum in Vienna were fabricated by the manufacturer Karl Henning and his son Theodor.


1. Scholz A, Holubar K, Burg G. Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Dermatologie. Dresden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.