Clinical Reference / Histologic Diagnosis / Embryologic, Histologic, and Anatomic Aspects | Suggested Readings

Embryologic, Histologic, and Anatomic Aspects

Suggested Readings


Balkwill F (ed). Cytokine Cellular Biology: A Practical Approach (Practical Approach Series). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Darmon M, Blumenberg M (eds). Molecular Biology of the Skin: The Keratinocyte. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993.

Freinkel RK, Woodley DT (eds). The Biology of the Skin. New York: Parthenon Publishing, 2001.

Goldsmith LA (ed). Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of the Skin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Kanitakis J, Vassileva S, Woodley DT (eds). Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry of the Skin: An Illustrated Text. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1998.

Montagna W, Parakkal PF. The Structure and Function of the Skin, 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1974.

Nordlund JJ, Boissy RE, Hearing VJ, et al. (eds). The Pigmentary System: Physiology and Pathophysiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Presland RB, Dale BA. Epithelial structural proteins of the skin and oral cavity: function in health and disease. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2000;11:383-408.

Rushmer RF, Buettner KJK, Short JM, Odland GF. The skin. Science 1966;154:343-348.


Davies JR, Dyson M, Mustafa Y, et al. The ontogeny of adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium of the developing human skin. J Anat 1996;189(Pt 2):373-382.

Ersch J, Stallmach T. Assessing gestational age from histology of fetal skin: an autopsy study of 379 fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(5 Pt 1):753-757.

Johnson CL, Holbrook KA. Development of human embryonic and fetal dermal vasculature. J Invest Dermatol 1989;93(2 Suppl):10S-17S.

Smith LT, Holbrook KA. Development of dermal connective tissue in human embryonic and fetal skin. Scan Electron Microsc 1982;(Pt 4):1745-1751.

Smith LT, Holbrook KA. Embryogenesis of the dermis in human skin. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1986;3:271-280.


Byrne C. Regulation of gene expression in developing epidermal epithelia. Bioessays 1997;19:691-69.

Di W-L, Rug EL, Leigh IM, Kelsell DP. Multiple epidermal connexins are expressed in different keratinocyte subpopulations including connexin 31. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:958-964.

Eckert RL, Crish JF, Robinson NA. The epidermal keratinocyte as a model for the study of gene regulation and cell differentiation. Physiol Rev 1997;77:397-424.

Freedberg IM, Tomic-Canic M, Komine M, Blumenberg M. Keratins and the keratinocyte activation cycle. J Invest Dermatol 2001;116:633-640.

Fuchs E. Epidermal differentiation: the bare essentials. J Cell Biol 1990;111:2807-2814.

Fuchs E, Byrne C. The epidermis: rising to the surface. Curr Opin Genet Dev 1994;4:725-736.

Katz SI, Tamaki K, Sachs DH. Epidermal Langerhans cells are derived from cells originating in the bone marrow. Nature 1979;282:324-326.

Lavker RM, Sun T-T. Heterogeneity in epidermal basal keratocytes: morphological and functional correlations. Science 1982;215:1239-1241.

McGowan KM, Coulombe PA. Keratin 17 expression in the hard epithelial context of the hair and nail, and its relevance for the pachyonychia congenita phenotype. J Invest Dermatol 2000;114:1101-1107.

Medawar PD. The micro-anatomy of the mammalian epidermis. Q J Microsc Sci 1953;94:481-506.

Seiji M, Fitzpatrick TB, Birbeck MSC. The melanosome: a distinctive subcellular particle of mammalian tyrosinase and the site of melanogenesis. J Invest Dermatol 1961;36:243-252.

Szabo G. The biology of the pigment cell. In: Bittar EE, Bittar N, eds. The Biological Basis of Medicine. London: Academic Press, 1969:59-91.

Hair Follicles

Ackerman AB. Bulge-activation hypothesis. Part I. A hair is not a follicle. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1995;1(1):53-54.

Ackerman AB, Chongchitnant N, DeViragh P. Neoplasms with Follicular Differentiation. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1992.

Ackerman AB, Misciali C, Radonich M. Bulge-activation hypothesis. Part III. A mouse is not a man. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1995;1(3):146-53.

Bernard BA. Hair shape of curly hair. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48(6 Suppl):S120-S126.

Cotsarelis G, Millar SE. Towards a molecular understanding of hair loss and its treatment. Trends Mol Med 2001;7:293-301.

Cotsarelis G, Sun T-T, Lavker RM. Label-retaining cells reside in the bulge area of pilosebaceous unit: implications for follicular stem cells, hair cycle, and skin carcinogenesis. Cell 1990;61:1329-1337.

Ketabchi N, Ackerman AB. The hair disk II: sensitive spot, touch unit, touch spot, touch dome, touch corpuscle, tactile corpuscle, or tylotrich pad? Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1996;2(3):131-146.

Ketabchi N, Ackerman AB. The hair disk III: Pinkus plate, tactile pad, epidermal pad complex, Pinkus ending, Merkel tactile disk, Iggo”s corpuscle, Merkel”s touch apparatus, Iggo dome, Iggo-Pinkus dome, Merkel touch spot, Iggo”s corpuscle, or Pinkus corpuscle? Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1996;2(4):210-226.

Ketabchi N, Ackerman AB. Hair disk: myth! Part IV. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1997;3(1):60-68.

Ketabchi N, Davis-Daneshfar A, Ackerman AB. The hair disk I: marvel or myth? Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1996;2(2):69-80.

Olsen E, Stenn K, Bergfeld W, et al. Update on cicatricial alopecia. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2003;8:18-19.

Paus R, Cotsarelis G. The biology of hair follicles. N Engl J Med 1999;341:491-497.

Radonich M, Misciali C, Ackerman AB. Bulge-activation hypothesis. Part II. The bulge is not a bulge. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1995;1(2):77-94.

Stenn KS. Molecular insights into the hair follicle and its pathology: a review of recent developments. Int J Dermatol 2003;42:40-43.

Stenn KS, Paus R. Controls of hair follicle cycling. Physiol Rev 2001;81:449-494.

Sebaceous Units

Bohm M, Luger TA. The pilosebaceous unit is part of the skin immune system. Dermatology 1998;196:75-79.

Kealey T, Philpott M, Guy R. The regulatory biology of the human pilosebaceous unit. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1997;11:205-227.

Sanders DA, Philpott MP, Nicolle FV, Kealey T. The isolation and maintenance of the human pilosebaceous unit. Br J Dermatol 1994;131:166-176.

Sangueza M, Radonich MA, Ackerman AB. Uncloaking the mantle. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1996;2:3-16.

Steffen C, Ackerman AB. Neoplasms with Sebaceous Differentiation. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994.

Wheatley VR. The sebaceous glands. In: Jarrett A, ed. The Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Skin. London: Academic Press, 1986;9:2705-2971.

Apocrine Units

Groscurth P. Anatomy of sweat glands. Curr Probl Dermatol 2002;30:1-9.

Hashimoto K, Gross BG, Lever WF. Electron microscopic study of apocrine secretion. J Invest Dermatol 1966;46:378-390.

Requena L, Kiryu M, Ackerman AB. Neoplasms with Apocrine Differentiation. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997.

Saga K. Histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands: an aid for histopathologic differentiation of sweat gland tumors. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 2001;6:49-53.

Scrivener Y, Cribier B. Morphology of sweat glands. Morphologie 2002;86:5-17.

Shelley WB, Hurley MJ. The physiology of the human axillary apocrine sweat glands. J Invest Dermatol 1953;21:285-295.

Eccrine Units

Abenoza P, Ackerman AB. Neoplasms with Eccrine Differentiation. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990.

Saga K. Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry. Prog Histochem Cytochem 2002;37:323-386.

Sato K. Mechanisms of eccrine sweat secretion. In: Quinton PM, Martinez JR, Hopfer U, eds. Fluid and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Exocrine Glands in Cystic Fibrosis. San Francisco: San Francisco Press, 1982:35-52.


Boissy RE. The melanocyte. Its structure, function, and subpopulations in skin, eyes, and hair. Dermatol Clin 1988;6:161-173.

Riley PA. Melanin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1997;29:1235-1239.

Seiberg M. Keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions during melanosome transfer. Pigment Cell Res 2001;14:236-242.

Sulaimon SS, Kitchell BE. The biology of melanocytes. Vet Dermatol 2003;14:57-65.

Vancoillie G, Lambert J, Nayaert JM. Melanocyte biology and its implications for the clinician. Eur J Dermatol 1999;9:241-251.

Langerhans” cells

Romani N, Holzmann S, Tripp CH, Koch F, Stoitzner P. Langerhans cells—dendritic cells of the epidermis. APMIS 2003;111:725-740.

Strobl H. Molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell sublineage development from human hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;131:73-79.

Merkel Cells

Kim DK, Holbrook KA. The appearance, density, and distribution of Merkel cells in human embryonic and fetal skin: their relation to sweat gland and hair follicle development. J Invest Dermatol 1995;104:411-416.

Moll I, Moll R, Franke WW. Formation of epidermal and dermal Merkel cells during human fetal skin development. J Invest Dermatol 1986;87:779-787.

Dermoepithelial Interface

Aumailley M, Rousselle P. Laminins of the dermo-epidermal junction. Matrix Biol 1999;18:19-28.

Bikle DD, Ng D, Tu CL, et al. Calcium- and vitamin D-regulated keratinocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001;177:161-171.

Borradori L, Sonnenberg A. Structure and function of hemidesmosomes: more than simple adhesion complexes. J Invest Dermatol 1999;112:411-418.

Briggaman RA. Epidermal-dermal junction: structure, composition, function and disease relationships. Prog Dermatol 1990;24:1-8.

Bruckner-Tuderman L. Blistering skin diseases: models for studies on epidermal-dermal adhesion. Biochem Cell Biol 1996;74(6):729-736.

Christiano AM, Uitto J. Molecular complexity of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Revelations from the paradigms of epidermolysis bullosa. Exp Dermatol 1996;5:1-11.

Hu Z, Bonifas JM, Beech J, et al. Mutations in ATP2C1, encoding a calcium pump, cause Hailey-Hailey disease. Nat Genet 2000;24:61-65.

Ishii N, Nakane H, Ishida-Yamamoto A. Application and limitations of three-dimensional reconstruction of the epidermal-dermal junction using electron microscopy. J Dermatol Sci 2003;32:231-235.

Kivirikko S, McGrath JA, Baudoin C, et al. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in lethal (Herlitz) junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Hum Mol Genet 1995;4:959-962.

Kowalczyk AP, Bornslaeger EA, Norvell SM, et al. Desmosomes: intercellular adhesive junctions specialized for attachment of intermediate filaments. Int Rev Cytol 1999;185:237-302.

Rousselle P, Keene DR, Ruggiero F, et al. Laminin 5 binds the NC-1 domain of type VII collagen. J Cell Biol 1997;138:719-728.

Sakuntabhai A, Burge S, Monk S, Hovnanian A. Spectrum of novel ATP2A2 mutations in patients with Darier”s disease. Hum Mol Genet 1999;8:1611-1619.

Schmidt E, Zillikens D. Autoimmune and inherited subepidermal blistering diseases: advances in the clinic and the laboratory. Adv Dermatol 2000;16:113-158.

Uitto J, Pulkkinen L. Molecular complexity of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Mol Biol Rep 1996;23:35-46.

Zillikens D, Giudice GJ. BP180/type XVII collagen: its role in acquired and inherited disorders or the dermal-epidermal junction. Arch Dermatol Res 1999;291:187-194.


Headington JT. The dermal dendrocyte. Adv Dermatol 1986;1:159-171.

Keene DR, Marinkovich MP, Sakai LY. Immunodissection of the connective tissue matrix in human skin. Microsc Res Tech 1997;38(4):394-406.

Postlethwaite AE, Seyer JM, Kang AH. Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen related peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1978;75:871-875.

Schepers C, Ackerman AB. Dermal dendrocyte? Dermatopathol Pract Concept, 1997.

Smith LT, Holbrook KA. Embryogenesis of the dermis in human skin. Pediatr Dermatol 1986;3(4):271-280.

Smith LT, Holbrook KA, Byers PH. Structure of the dermal matrix during development and in the adult. J Invest Dermatol 1982;79:93S-104S.

Sorrell JM, Carrino DA, Baber MA, Caplan AI. Versican in human fetal skin development. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1999;199:45-56.


Braverman IM. The cutaneous microcirculation. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2000;5:3-9.

Braverman IM. The cutaneous microcirculation: ultrastructure and microanatomical organization. Microcirculation 1997;4:329-40.


Akagi A, Tajima S, Ishibashi A, et al. Expression of type XVI collagen in human skin fibroblasts: enhanced expression in fibrotic skin diseases. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113:246-250.

Burgeson RE. Type VII collagen, anchoring fibrils, and epidermolysis bullosa. J Invest Dermatol 1993;101:252-255.

Ghohestani RF, Hudson BG, Claudy A, Uitto J. The alpha 5 chain of type IV collagen is the target of IgG autoantibodies in a novel autoimmune disease with subepidermal blisters and renal insufficiency. J Biol Chem 2000;275:16002-16006.

Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G, Prockop DJ. Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of diseases of bone, cartilage, and blood vessels. Hum Mutat 1997;9:300-315.

Michalickova K, Susic M, Willing MC, et al. Mutations of the alpha2 (V) chain of type V collagen impair matrix assembly and produce Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I. Hum Mol Genet 1998;7:249-255.

Myllyharju J, Kivirikko KI. Collagens and collagen-related diseases. Ann Med 2001;33:7-21.

Peltonen S, Hentula M, Hagg P, et al. A novel component of epidermal cell-matrix and cell-cell contacts: transmembrane protein type XIII collagen. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113:635-642.

Schwarze U, Atkinson M, Hoffman GG, et al. Null alleles of the COL5A1 gene of type V collagen are a cause of the classical forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (types I and II). Am J Hum Genet 2000;66:1757-1765.

Elastic Fibers

Kielty C, Sherratt MJ, Shuttleworth CA. Elastic fibres. J Cell Sci 2002;115:281-287.

Rosenbloom J, Abrams WR. Elastin and the Microfibrillar Apparatus. In: Royce MR, Steinmann B, eds. Connective Tissue and Its Heritable Disorders, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2002:249-269.


Barcaui CB, Pineiro-Maceira J, de Avelar Alchorne MM. Arrector pili muscle: evidence of proximal attachment variant in terminal follicles of the scalp. Br J Dermatol 2002;146:657-658.

Narisawa Y, Hashimoto K, Kohda H. Scanning electron microscopic observations of extracted terminal hair follicles of the adult human scalp and eyebrow with special references to the bulge area. Arch Dermatol Res 1995;287:599-607.

Narisawa Y, Hashimoto K, Kohda H. Merkel cells participate in the induction and alignment of epidermal ends of arrector pili muscles of human fetal skin. Br J Dermatol 1996;134:494-498.

Poblet E, Ortega F, Jimenez F. The arrector pili muscle and the follicular unit of the scalp: a microscopic anatomy study. Dermatol Surg 2002;28:800-803.

Radonich MA, Parades B, Ackerman AB. Sites of attachment of the muscle of hair erection. Dermatopathol Pract Concept 1995;1:229-233.


Johnson KO. The roles and functions of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2001;11:455-461.

Johnson KO, Yoshioka T, Vega-Bermudez F. Tactile functions of mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the hand. J Clin Neurophysiol 2000;17:539-558.

Munger BL, Ide C. The structure and function of cutaneous sensory receptors. Arch Histol Cytol 1988;51:1-34.

Subcutaneous Fat

Spearman RIC. Structure and function of subcutaneous tissue. Physiol Pathophysiol Skin 1982;7:2252-2281.